Supply and demand with a twang
Bailout: providing assistance to a troubled firm that has an imminent risk of failure. Shuttin' Detroit Down
Comparative advantage: this occurs when an individual or country can produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than others can. Made in America ; Pretty Good at Drinkin' Beer ; I'll Name the Dogs
Compensating wage differentials: differences in rates of pay among occupations that compensate for negative job characteristics. Big Money
Complementary goods: goods that are consumed together. She Only Smokes When She Drinks
Conspicuous consumption: spending on consumer goods, often luxury goods, which is meant to exhibit your social status and class to the rest of society. This term was coined by economist Thorstein Veblen. Rich and Miserable
Consumer preferences: the ordering of choices based on their relative utility. Gone Country
Correlation vs. Causation: the assumption that two correlated events have a causal relationship implying that one event causes the other. It Ain't My Fault
Creative destruction: a term coined by economist Joseph Schumpeter which describes the natural growth and demise of industries as a result of technological innovation. It is thought that 'creative destruction' is the driver of economic growth and leads to higher standards of living. Here's a Quarter
Diminishing marginal utility: the decrease in marginal utility that arises from consuming consecutive units of the same good or service, while holding the consumption of other goods or services constant. Little Bit of Everything ; One More Day
Discouraged workers: persons not in the labor force who are available for work and have looked during the last 12 months, but who are currently not working because they believe there are no jobs available or none for which they are qualified. Red, White, and Pink Slip Blues
Discretionary income: after tax income used to purchases non-essential goods or services. Beer Money
Division of labor: the separation of a complex process into smaller, more specialized tasks in order to increase efficiency. I'll Name the Dogs
Durable goods: consumer goods that have an average lifespan of at least three years. This group of goods is sometimes referred to as 'big ticket items', and serves as an economic indicator for economists. Are the Good Times Really Over
Economics: the study of how society allocates scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. Rich and Miserable
Escalator clause: a clause that allows for the adjustment of prices, wages, or income to account for inflation.
Fiat money: money with no intrinsic value. Are the Good Times Really Over
Fiscal policy: the targeted use of changes in government spending or taxes to influence the macroeconomy and return it to full employment output. Song of the South
Free market: an economic system that is founded on individual choice and incentives which is relatively free of government intervention. Gone Country
Frictional unemployment: short-term unemployment caused by the time it takes to match workers and jobs.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): the total market value of all final goods and services produced within a country, region, or state during a specific period. Buy Me a Boat ; Live a Little ; Fake I.D. ; Rich and Miserable
Great Depression: an economic recession in the United States that lasted from 1929 through the late 1930s. High unemployment, low incomes, and deflation were the result of the worst economic downturn in U.S. history. In Color ;Song of the South
Human capital: the knowledge and skills that workers acquire through education and on-the-job training. Rich and Miserable
Incentives: anything that motivates or discourages a particular activity. Big Money
Income: money received by individuals and businesses for work, through investments, or the sale of products. Buy Me a Boat ;Huntin', Fishin', and Lovin' Every Day; I Hold On ; Right Where I Need to Be
Inferior goods: goods for which demand decreases when consumer income increases. Alright
Job search: the act of looking for a job when one is unemployed. Cost of Livin'
Keynesian macroeconomics: an economic concept that uses expansionary fiscal or monetary policy to boost aggregate demand during a recession and move the economy back to full employment more rapidly. Song of the South
Marginal benefit (utility): the extra benefit (i.e. utility) received from consuming one additional unit of a good or service. In terms of production, this is viewed as the additional revenue from selling one more unit of output and is called marginal revenue.
Marginal cost: the extra cost (i.e. disutility) received from consuming one additional unit of a good or service. In terms of production, marginal cost is the additional cost of producing one more unit of output.
Market failure: an inefficient allocation of resources in a market. Keep the Wolves Away
Moral hazard: the problem that arises when economic agents are not fully responsible for the risks they take, and are thus more likely to continue their risky behavior. Shuttin' Detroit Down
Negative externalities: costs borne by a 3rd party from economic activity. Keep the Wolves Away
Nominal: an unadjusted rate or value. Love Like Crazy
Production Possibility Frontier (PPF): an economic model that assumes the production of two items with fixed resources and technology. Points on the curve represent maximum production and efficient use of resources. Time is Love ; Rain is a Good Thing
Production function: the relationship between inputs and output (i.e. production). Rain Is a Good Thing
Real: an adjusted rate or value. The adjustment is to account for inflation. Love Like Crazy
Resources: inputs used in the production process. The three main categories are land, labor, and capital.
Social safety net: assistance such as welfare, health care, unemployment benefits, which are provided by the government with the goal of improved societal outcomes. Keep the Wolves Away
Specialization: when an individual or country chooses to focus more of its resources on a certain good or service in which it has a comparative advantage. Made in America ; Red, White, and Pink Slip Blues ; I'll Name the Dogs
Standard of living: a relative measure of society's well-being based primarily on the amount of goods and services individuals are able to consume. Buy Me a Boat ; Huntin', Fishin', and Lovin' Every Day ;Live a Little ; Right Where I Need to Be ; Are the Good Times Really Over ; Rich and Miserable ; Alright
Store of value: the function of money that allows people to hold wealth and transfer purchasing power from one period to the next. Somethin' Bad
Structural unemployment: unemployment caused by sectoral shifts in the economy which is often characterized by longer periods of unemployment. Red, White, and Pink Slip Blues
Student loan debt: the amount of debt accumulated in the pursuit of a college degree. Rich and Miserable
Trade: the exchange of goods and services between two or more parties. Typically in reference to the exchange of goods and services between countries. Made in America ; Red, White, and Pink Slip Blues ; I'll Name the Dogs
Underground economy: economic activity that is not counted in official GDP statistics. Although sometimes nefarious in nature, activity in the underground economy can also be quite benign, such as a teenager mowing lawns and being paid in cash. Fake I.D.
Unemployment: a situation where an individual does not have a job but wants to work, and has been actively seeking employment during the last four weeks. Keep the Wolves Away ; Red, White, and Pink Slip Blues